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README.md

Getting Started with EpicSim

EpicSim is a Verilog compiler. It is suitable for use as a simulator. EpicSim is recommended to run under RedHat and Centos. Instructions are generally applicable to all environments.

Project is developed based on icarus iverilog under LGPL. Special thanks to Stephen Williams (steve@icarus.com).

1. Install From Source

In this case, see INSTALL_INSTRUCTION.txt that comes with the source.

2. Hello, World!

The first thing you want to do as a user is learn how to compile and execute even the most trivial design. For the purposes of simulation, we use as our example the most trivial simulation:

  module main;

  initial
    begin
      $display("Hello, World");
      $finish ;
    end

  endmodule

By a text editor (or copy hello.vl from the EpicSim examples directory) arrange for this program to be in a text file, "hello.vl". Next, compile this program with a command like this:

% epicsim hello.vl
  Hello, World

The results of this compile are placed into the file "epicsim-run", and it is excuted.

The compiled program can also be excuted like so:

% epicsim-driver hello.vl -o epicsim-run 
% epicsim-vvp ./epicsim-run
  Hello, World

And there it is, the program has been executed. So what happened? The first step, the "epicsim-driver" command, read and interpreted the source file, then generated a compiled result. The compiled form may be selected by command line switches, but the default form is the VVP format, which is actually run by the "epicsim-vvp" command.

The "epicsim-driver" and "epicsim-vvp" commands are the only commands that users use to invoke EpicSim. What the compiler actually does is controlled by command line switches. In our little example, we asked the compiler to compile the source program to the default epicsim-vvp form, which is in turn executed by the epicsim-vvp program.

3. How EpicSim Works

This tool includes a parser which reads in Verilog (plus extensions) and generates an internal netlist. The netlist is passed to various processing steps that transform the design to more optimal/practical forms, then is passed to a code generator for final output. The processing steps and the code generator are selected by command line switches.

3.1 Preprocessing

There is a separate program, ivlpp, that does the preprocessing. This program implements the include and define directives producing output that is equivalent but without the directives. The output is a single file with line number directives, so that the actual compiler only sees a single input file. See ivlpp/ivlpp.txt for details.

3.2 Parse

The Verilog compiler starts by parsing the Verilog source file. The output of the parse is a list of Module objects in "pform". The pform (see pform.h) is mostly a direct reflection of the compilation step. There may be dangling references, and it is not yet clear which module is the root.

One can see a human-readable version of the final pform by using the -P <path>'' flag to the ivl'' subcommand. This will cause ivl to dump the pform into the file named . (Note that this is not normally done, unless debugging the ``ivl'' subcommand.)

3.3 Elaboration

This phase takes the pform and generates a netlist. The driver selects (by user request or lucky guess) the root module to elaborate, resolves references and expands the instantiations to form the design netlist. (See netlist.txt.) Final semantic checks are performed during elaboration, and some simple optimizations are performed. The netlist includes all the behavioural descriptions, as well as gates and wires.

The elaborate() function performs the elaboration.

One can see a human-readable version of the final, elaborated and optimized netlist by using the ``-N '' flag to the compiler. If elaboration succeeds, the final netlist (i.e., after optimizations but before code generation) will be dumped into the file named .

Elaboration is performed in two steps: scopes and parameters first, followed by the structural and behavioural elaboration.

3.3.1 Scope Elaboration

This pass scans through the pform looking for scopes and parameters. A tree of NetScope objects is built up and placed in the Design object, with the root module represented by the root NetScope object. The elab_scope.cc file contains most of the code for handling this phase.

The tail of the elaborate_scope behaviour (after the pform is traversed) includes a scan of the NetScope tree to locate defparam assignments that were collected during scope elaboration. This is when the defparam overrides are applied to the parameters.

3.3.2 Netlist Elaboration

After the scopes and parameters are generated and the NetScope tree fully formed, the elaboration runs through the pform again, this time generating the structural and behavioural netlist. Parameters are elaborated and evaluated by now so all the constants of code generation are now known locally, so the netlist can be generated by simply passing through the pform.

3.4 Optimization

This is a collection of processing steps that perform optimizations that do not depend on the target technology. Examples of some useful transformations are

    - eliminate null effect circuitry
    - combinational reduction
    - constant propagation

The actual functions performed are specified on the ivl command line by the -F flags (see below).

3.5 Code Generation

This step takes the design netlist and uses it to drive the code generator (see target.h). This may require transforming the design to suit the technology.

The emit() method of the Design class performs this step. It runs through the design elements, calling target functions as the need arises to generate actual output.

The user selects the target code generator with the -t flag on the command line.

4 Unsupported Constructs

  • Specify blocks are parsed but ignored in general.
  • trireg is not supported. tri0 and tri1 are supported.
  • tran primitives, i.e. tran, tranif1, tranif0, rtran, rtranif1 and rtranif0 are not supported.
  • Event controls inside non-blocking assignments are not supported. i.e.:
a <= @(posedge clk) b;

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