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hainuo authored 2015-07-08 22:38 . 语法变量引用

% Foreign Function Interface 外部函数接口

Introduction 说明

This guide will use the snappy compression/decompression library as an introduction to writing bindings for foreign code. Rust is currently unable to call directly into a C++ library, but snappy includes a C interface (documented in snappy-c.h).

本书将使用snappy压缩发压缩库作为例子来编写外部代码的变量绑定。目前Rust语言不能够直接使用C++库,然而snappy含有一个c接口 (记录在 snappy-c.h).

The following is a minimal example of calling a foreign function which will compile if snappy is installed:

下面就是一个简单的调用外部函数的例子,如果snappy已经被安装了,那么他将会被编译。

# #![feature(libc)]
extern crate libc;
use libc::size_t;

#[link(name = "snappy")]
extern {
    fn snappy_max_compressed_length(source_length: size_t) -> size_t;
}

fn main() {
    let x = unsafe { snappy_max_compressed_length(100) };
    println!("max compressed length of a 100 byte buffer: {}", x);
}

The extern block is a list of function signatures in a foreign library, in this case with the platform's C ABI. The #[link(...)] attribute is used to instruct the linker to link against the snappy library so the symbols are resolved.

extern代码块是一个外部库的函数标记列表,在本案例中使用的是C平台 ABI。#[link(...)]属性是用来声明一个可以映射到snappy库的连接器,解决了符号链接

Foreign functions are assumed to be unsafe so calls to them need to be wrapped with unsafe {} as a promise to the compiler that everything contained within truly is safe. C libraries often expose interfaces that aren't thread-safe, and almost any function that takes a pointer argument isn't valid for all possible inputs since the pointer could be dangling, and raw pointers fall outside of Rust's safe memory model.

外部函数被认为是不安全的,所以需要使用unsafe{}来封装他们,作为向编译器的一个保证,来确保包含在内部的任何内容真的是安全的。C语言经常暴露一些非线程安全的接口,并且他们使用一个指针参数,因为指针可能为空指针,不能够验证所有可能的输入,从而导致原始指针落到Rust的安全内存模型之外的地方。

When declaring the argument types to a foreign function, the Rust compiler can not check if the declaration is correct, so specifying it correctly is part of keeping the binding correct at runtime.

当声明一个外部函数的参数类型时,Rust编译器不能够检查是否正确,所以正确地指定类型是保证在运行时保持绑定正确的一部分。

The extern block can be extended to cover the entire snappy API:

extern代码块能够被扩展来覆盖整个的snappy API:

# #![feature(libc)]
extern crate libc;
use libc::{c_int, size_t};

#[link(name = "snappy")]
extern {
    fn snappy_compress(input: *const u8,
                       input_length: size_t,
                       compressed: *mut u8,
                       compressed_length: *mut size_t) -> c_int;
    fn snappy_uncompress(compressed: *const u8,
                         compressed_length: size_t,
                         uncompressed: *mut u8,
                         uncompressed_length: *mut size_t) -> c_int;
    fn snappy_max_compressed_length(source_length: size_t) -> size_t;
    fn snappy_uncompressed_length(compressed: *const u8,
                                  compressed_length: size_t,
                                  result: *mut size_t) -> c_int;
    fn snappy_validate_compressed_buffer(compressed: *const u8,
                                         compressed_length: size_t) -> c_int;
}
# fn main() {}

Creating a safe interface 创建一个安全的接口

The raw C API needs to be wrapped to provide memory safety and make use of higher-level concepts like vectors. A library can choose to expose only the safe, high-level interface and hide the unsafe internal details.

原始的C API 需要提供安全内存和使用像向量这样的高级概念。一个库能够选择只暴露安全的、高级接口并隐藏内部不安全信息。

Wrapping the functions which expect buffers involves using the slice::raw module to manipulate Rust vectors as pointers to memory. Rust's vectors are guaranteed to be a contiguous block of memory. The length is number of elements currently contained, and the capacity is the total size in elements of the allocated memory. The length is less than or equal to the capacity.

封装具有缓冲区的方法包括使用slice::raw模块来作为内存指针来操纵Rust的向量。Rust的向量是被保护为一个连续的内存块。长度就是当前内部元素的数量,容量是所有分配内存元素大小的总和。长度是远远小于或者等于容量的

# #![feature(libc)]
# extern crate libc;
# use libc::{c_int, size_t};
# unsafe fn snappy_validate_compressed_buffer(_: *const u8, _: size_t) -> c_int { 0 }
# fn main() {}
pub fn validate_compressed_buffer(src: &[u8]) -> bool {
    unsafe {
        snappy_validate_compressed_buffer(src.as_ptr(), src.len() as size_t) == 0
    }
}

The validate_compressed_buffer wrapper above makes use of an unsafe block, but it makes the guarantee that calling it is safe for all inputs by leaving off unsafe from the function signature.

上面的validate_compressed_buffer封装使用了一个unsafe模块,然而,通过函数标记在离开unsafe封装时,它保证对于所有的输入操作,调用他是安全的。

The snappy_compress and snappy_uncompress functions are more complex, since a buffer has to be allocated to hold the output too.

snappy_compresssnappy_uncompress更加负责,因为一个缓冲区已经被分配用来保持输出。

The snappy_max_compressed_length function can be used to allocate a vector with the maximum required capacity to hold the compressed output. The vector can then be passed to the snappy_compress function as an output parameter. An output parameter is also passed to retrieve the true length after compression for setting the length.

snappy_max_compressed_length函数用来分配一个使用所需要的最大容量的向量,来保证压缩输出。这个向量随后可以被传递给snappy_compress作为一个输出参数。输出参数同样被传递用来检查为设定长度的压缩后的真实长度。

# #![feature(libc)]
# extern crate libc;
# use libc::{size_t, c_int};
# unsafe fn snappy_compress(a: *const u8, b: size_t, c: *mut u8,
#                           d: *mut size_t) -> c_int { 0 }
# unsafe fn snappy_max_compressed_length(a: size_t) -> size_t { a }
# fn main() {}
pub fn compress(src: &[u8]) -> Vec<u8> {
    unsafe {
        let srclen = src.len() as size_t;
        let psrc = src.as_ptr();

        let mut dstlen = snappy_max_compressed_length(srclen);
        let mut dst = Vec::with_capacity(dstlen as usize);
        let pdst = dst.as_mut_ptr();

        snappy_compress(psrc, srclen, pdst, &mut dstlen);
        dst.set_len(dstlen as usize);
        dst
    }
}

Decompression is similar, because snappy stores the uncompressed size as part of the compression format and snappy_uncompressed_length will retrieve the exact buffer size required.

解压缩是类似的,因为snappy将未压缩大小作为压缩格式的一部分来存储,snappy_uncompressed_length会校验所需要的精确地缓冲区大小。

# #![feature(libc)]
# extern crate libc;
# use libc::{size_t, c_int};
# unsafe fn snappy_uncompress(compressed: *const u8,
#                             compressed_length: size_t,
#                             uncompressed: *mut u8,
#                             uncompressed_length: *mut size_t) -> c_int { 0 }
# unsafe fn snappy_uncompressed_length(compressed: *const u8,
#                                      compressed_length: size_t,
#                                      result: *mut size_t) -> c_int { 0 }
# fn main() {}
pub fn uncompress(src: &[u8]) -> Option<Vec<u8>> {
    unsafe {
        let srclen = src.len() as size_t;
        let psrc = src.as_ptr();

        let mut dstlen: size_t = 0;
        snappy_uncompressed_length(psrc, srclen, &mut dstlen);

        let mut dst = Vec::with_capacity(dstlen as usize);
        let pdst = dst.as_mut_ptr();

        if snappy_uncompress(psrc, srclen, pdst, &mut dstlen) == 0 {
            dst.set_len(dstlen as usize);
            Some(dst)
        } else {
            None // SNAPPY_INVALID_INPUT
        }
    }
}

For reference, the examples used here are also available as a library on GitHub.

这里的例子同样参考适用于在[github上的库]library on GitHub

Destructors 析构函数

Foreign libraries often hand off ownership of resources to the calling code.When this occurs, we must use Rust's destructors to provide safety and guarantee the release of these resources (especially in the case of panic).

外部库经常将资源的所有权交给调用带按摩。当这发生时,我们需要使用Rust语言的析构函数来保证安全和保障这些资源的额释放(尤其是在panic的情况下)。

For more about destructors, see the Drop trait.

想要了解更多析构函数相关的知识,可以参见Drop trait丢弃特性

Callbacks from C code to Rust functions 从C代码到Rust函数的回调方法

Some external libraries require the usage of callbacks to report back their current state or intermediate data to the caller.It is possible to pass functions defined in Rust to an external library.The requirement for this is that the callback function is marked as extern with the correct calling convention to make it callable from C code.

一些外部库需要使用回调方法来汇报它们的当前状态或者是调用的中间数据。在Rust中定义一个函数传递到外部库是可能的。要求是回调函数必须使用正确的调用约定标记为extern,来确保他能够在C代码中调用到。

The callback function can then be sent through a registration call to the C library and afterwards be invoked from there.

回调函数能够被一个注册调用发送给C库,稍后从哪里被调用。

A basic example is:

基本栗子是这样子的:

Rust code:

这是Rust代码:

extern fn callback(a: i32) {
    println!("I'm called from C with value {0}", a);
}

#[link(name = "extlib")]
extern {
   fn register_callback(cb: extern fn(i32)) -> i32;
   fn trigger_callback();
}

fn main() {
    unsafe {
        register_callback(callback);
        trigger_callback(); // Triggers the callback
    }
}

C code:

这是C代码:

typedef void (*rust_callback)(int32_t);
rust_callback cb;

int32_t register_callback(rust_callback callback) {
    cb = callback;
    return 1;
}

void trigger_callback() {
  cb(7); // Will call callback(7) in Rust
}

In this example Rust's main() will call trigger_callback() in C,which would, in turn, call back to callback() in Rust.

在这个例子中,Rust的main()将调用C中的trigger_callback(),反过来,他将会回调Rust中的callback()

Targeting callbacks to Rust objects 定位Rust对象的回调

The former example showed how a global function can be called from C code.However it is often desired that the callback is targeted to a special Rust object. This could be the object that represents the wrapper for the respective C object.

前面一个例子说明了,一个全局的函数是如何被C代码调用的。然而,定位回调给一个Rust对象是经常被期望的。这可能是一个表示着封装了各个C对象的对象。

This can be achieved by passing an unsafe pointer to the object down to the C library. The C library can then include the pointer to the Rust object in the notification. This will allow the callback to unsafely access the referenced Rust object.

这个能够通过传递一个不安全的指向这个对象的指针到C库中。然后C库将这个Rust对象的指针包含进声明中。这将允许回调对引用的Rust对象进行不安全地存取。

Rust code:

Rust代码:

#[repr(C)]
struct RustObject {
    a: i32,
    // other members
}

extern "C" fn callback(target: *mut RustObject, a: i32) {
    println!("I'm called from C with value {0}", a);
    unsafe {
        // Update the value in RustObject with the value received from the callback
        (*target).a = a;
    }
}

#[link(name = "extlib")]
extern {
   fn register_callback(target: *mut RustObject,
                        cb: extern fn(*mut RustObject, i32)) -> i32;
   fn trigger_callback();
}

fn main() {
    // Create the object that will be referenced in the callback
    let mut rust_object = Box::new(RustObject { a: 5 });

    unsafe {
        register_callback(&mut *rust_object, callback);
        trigger_callback();
    }
}

C code:

C代码:

typedef void (*rust_callback)(void*, int32_t);
void* cb_target;
rust_callback cb;

int32_t register_callback(void* callback_target, rust_callback callback) {
    cb_target = callback_target;
    cb = callback;
    return 1;
}

void trigger_callback() {
  cb(cb_target, 7); // Will call callback(&rustObject, 7) in Rust
}

Asynchronous callbacks 异步回调

In the previously given examples the callbacks are invoked as a direct reaction to a function call to the external C library. The control over the current thread is switched from Rust to C to Rust for the execution of the callback, but in the end the callback is executed on the same thread that called the function which triggered the callback.

前面给出的例子中回调函数是作为一个调用外部C库的函数的直接反射来调用的。通过执行回调方法,当前线程的控制权从Rust转移到C中,然后又从C中转移到Rust中,然而直到最后,回调还是被执行在引发回调的函数所调用的同一个线程上。

Things get more complicated when the external library spawns its own threads and invokes callbacks from there. In these cases access to Rust data structures inside the callbacks is especially unsafe and proper synchronization mechanisms must be used. Besides classical synchronization mechanisms like mutexes, one possibility in Rust is to use channels (in std::comm) to forward data from the C thread that invoked the callback into a Rust thread.

当外部库派生出自己的线程,并从哪里调用回调时,事情变得更加复杂。在这种情况下,存取回调中Rust数据结构是特别不安全的,所以必须有一个适当的同步机制。除了经典的互斥变量同步机制,在Rust语言中有一个可能性是使用信道(在std::comm中)来转发数据到能够调用回到到一个Rust线程的C线程中。

If an asynchronous callback targets a special object in the Rust address space it is also absolutely necessary that no more callbacks are performed by the C library after the respective Rust object gets destroyed.This can be achieved by unregistering the callback in the object's destructor and designing the library in a way that guarantees that no callback will be performed after deregistration.

如果一个异步回调针对着Rust地址空间中的一个特殊对象,各自的Rust对象被销毁之后没有C库中不会执行任何回调时绝对必要的。这可以通过在对象析构函数中反注册回调 并将库设计为一种能够确保在反注册后没有任何回调会被执行的方式来实现。

Linking

The link attribute on extern blocks provides the basic building block for instructing rustc how it will link to native libraries. There are two accepted forms of the link attribute today:

extern代码块的link属性提供了一个基本的构建块来告诉rustc如何连接到一个本地库文件。有两种可以被接受的link属性:

  • #[link(name = "foo")]
  • #[link(name = "foo", kind = "bar")]

In both of these cases, foo is the name of the native library that we're linking to, and in the second case bar is the type of native library that the compiler is linking to. There are currently three known types of native libraries: 在这两种形式中,foo是我们要连接到的本地库文件的名字,在第二种形式中,bar是编译器正在连接的本地库文件的类型。一共有三种已知的本地库类型:

  • Dynamic 动态- #[link(name = "readline")]
  • Static 静态- #[link(name = "my_build_dependency", kind = "static")]
  • Frameworks 框架- #[link(name = "CoreFoundation", kind = "framework")]

Note that frameworks are only available on OSX targets.

请注意,框架类型仅仅适用于osx系统。

The different kind values are meant to differentiate how the native library participates in linkage. From a linkage perspective, the rust compiler creates two flavors of artifacts: partial (rlib/staticlib) and final (dylib/binary).Native dynamic libraries and frameworks are propagated to the final artifact boundary, while static libraries are not propagated at all.

不同的kind类型值旨在区分本地库文件是何种方式参与到连接中的。通过链接方式来看,Rust语言编译器创建了两种形式的东西:局部的(rlib/staticlib)和最终的(dylib/binary)。本地动态库和框架被传播给最终编译文件,静态库文件则根本不会被传播。

A few examples of how this model can be used are:

下面是介绍如何使用这个模型的一些例子:

  • A native build dependency. Sometimes some C/C++ glue is needed when writing some rust code, but distribution of the C/C++ code in a library format is just a burden. In this case, the code will be archived into libfoo.a and then the rust crate would declare a dependency via #[link(name = "foo", kind ="static")].

  • 一个原生构建依赖。写一些Rust代码时,有时需要一些C/C++,然而,在库文件中C/C++的分发正式一个麻烦。在这种情况下,该代码被归档进libfoo.a,然后后Rust Crate将通过#[link(name="foo",kind="static)]来声明一个依赖。

    Regardless of the flavor of output for the crate, the native static library will be included in the output, meaning that distribution of the native static library is not necessary.

    无论为crate输出何种形式,本地静态库将被包含进输出中,这意味本地静态库的分发不是必须的。

  • A normal dynamic dependency. Common system libraries (like readline) are available on a large number of systems, and often a static copy of these libraries cannot be found. When this dependency is included in a rust crate,partial targets (like rlibs) will not link to the library, but when the rlib is included in a final target (like a binary), the native library will be linked in.

一个正常的动态依赖。在大多数系统中,普通的系统库文件(比如 readline)是可用的,然而,这些苦文件的静态副本确实常常无法找到。当这种依赖被包含在rust crate中时,部分目标(比如rlibs)将不会连接到这个库文件,然而,当rlib会被包含进最终的目标(比如二进制文件),本地库文件也将被包含进来。

On OSX, frameworks behave with the same semantics as a dynamic library.

在OSX系统中,框架作为动态库表现相同的语境。

Unsafe blocks 不安全代码块

Some operations, like dereferencing unsafe pointers or calling functions that have been marked unsafe are only allowed inside unsafe blocks. Unsafe blocks isolate unsafety and are a promise to the compiler that the unsafety does not leak out of the block.

有些操作,比如取消不安全的指针引用或者已经被标记为不安全的调用函数只在不安全代码块中才被允许。不安全代码块隔离了不安全,并且向编译器承诺,不安全代码不会泄露。

Unsafe functions, on the other hand, advertise it to the world. An unsafe function is written like this:

另一方面,不安全的函数,宣扬他给所有的代码。一个不安全函数应该这样写:

unsafe fn kaboom(ptr: *const i32) -> i32 { *ptr }

This function can only be called from an unsafe block or another unsafe function.

这个函数只能够从一个unsafe不安全代码块或者另一个不安全函数中条用。

Accessing foreign globals 全局外部访问

Foreign APIs often export a global variable which could do something like track global state. In order to access these variables, you declare them in extern blocks with the static keyword:

外部API接口常常暴露一个全局变量,他可以做一些像跟踪全局状态类的事情。为了访问这些变来那个,你需要在extern代码块中使用static关键词来声明他们:

# #![feature(libc)]
extern crate libc;

#[link(name = "readline")]
extern {
    static rl_readline_version: libc::c_int;
}

fn main() {
    println!("You have readline version {} installed.",
             rl_readline_version as i32);
}

Alternatively, you may need to alter global state provided by a foreign interface. To do this, statics can be declared with mut so we can mutate them.

或者,你可能需要同意一个外部接口来修改全局状态。为此,可以使用mut来声明这些静态变量,以便我们可以改变他们。

# #![feature(libc)]
extern crate libc;

use std::ffi::CString;
use std::ptr;

#[link(name = "readline")]
extern {
    static mut rl_prompt: *const libc::c_char;
}

fn main() {
    let prompt = CString::new("[my-awesome-shell] $").unwrap();
    unsafe {
        rl_prompt = prompt.as_ptr();

        println!("{:?}", rl_prompt);

        rl_prompt = ptr::null();
    }
}

Note that all interaction with a static mut is unsafe, both reading and writing. Dealing with global mutable state requires a great deal of care.

需要注意的是,所有使用static mut的接口,无论读写,都是不安全的。处理全局可变状态需要非常非常细心关照。

Foreign calling conventions 外部调用约定

Most foreign code exposes a C ABI, and Rust uses the platform's C calling convention by default when calling foreign functions. Some foreign functions, most notably the Windows API, use other calling conventions. Rust provides a way to tell the compiler which convention to use:

大多数外部代码暴露一个C ABI,当调用外部函数时,Rust默认使用C平台的调用协议。一些外部函数,特别是Windows API,使用另外一些调用约定。Rust语言提供了一种方式,来告诉编译器使用哪一种约定:

# #![feature(libc)]
extern crate libc;

#[cfg(all(target_os = "win32", target_arch = "x86"))]
#[link(name = "kernel32")]
#[allow(non_snake_case)]
extern "stdcall" {
    fn SetEnvironmentVariableA(n: *const u8, v: *const u8) -> libc::c_int;
}
# fn main() { }

This applies to the entire extern block. The list of supported ABI constraints are:

这适用于全部的extern代码块。支持ABI约定的列表如下:

  • stdcall
  • aapcs
  • cdecl
  • fastcall
  • Rust
  • rust-intrinsic
  • system
  • C
  • win64

Most of the abis in this list are self-explanatory, but the system abi may seem a little odd. This constraint selects whatever the appropriate ABI is for interoperating with the target's libraries. For example, on win32 with a x86 architecture, this means that the abi used would be stdcall. On x86_64, however, windows uses the C calling convention, so C would be used. This means that in our previous example, we could have used extern "system" { ... } to define a block for all windows systems, not just x86 ones.

大多数在次列表中的ABI是不言自明的,但是,systemABI可能显得有些奇怪。此约束选择任何适用的SPI来与目标库文件进行相互操作。比如,在使用X86架构的win32系统上,这意味着ABI使用的将是stdcall。然而,在x86_64架构上,windows系统使用C调用约定,所有C将被使用。这意味着,在我们之前的例子中,我们可以使用Extern "system" {...}来为所有的windows系统来定义一个代码块,而不仅仅是x86系统,

Interoperability with foreign code

Rust guarantees that the layout of a struct is compatible with the platform's representation in C only if the #[repr(C)] attribute is applied to it. #[repr(C, packed)] can be used to lay out struct members without padding. #[repr(C)] can also be applied to an enum.

Rust语言保证struct布局是在C中是适用于平台级别的表现,除非#[repr(C)]属性被用来适用它。 #[repr(C, packed)] 能够被用来布局结构成员而不是填充。 #[repr(C)]同样可应用于一个枚举。

Rust's owned boxes (Box<T>) use non-nullable pointers as handles which point to the contained object. However, they should not be manually created because they are managed by internal allocators. References can safely be assumed to be non-nullable pointers directly to the type. However, breaking the borrow checking or mutability rules is not guaranteed to be safe, so prefer using raw pointers (*) if that's needed because the compiler can't make as many assumptions about them.

Rust自有的boxes(Box<T>)使用一个非空指针作为指向包含对象的句柄。然而,它们不应该被手动创建,因为他们有内部分配器进行管理。地址引用可以安全的假定为指向这种类型的非空指针。然而打断引用检测后者可变规则是不能够保证安全的,因此如果非必要请尽量使用原始指针(*),因为编译器不能够对他们进行尽可能多的推断。

Vectors and strings share the same basic memory layout, and utilities are available in the vec and str modules for working with C APIs. However, strings are not terminated with \0. If you need a NUL-terminated string for interoperability with C, you should use the CString type in the std::ffi module.

向量和字符串共享同一个基本的内存布局,utilities在使用C API时,适用于Vecstr模块。然而,字符串不会以\0终止。如果你需要一个与C相互操作的没有结尾的字符串,你需要在std::ffi模块中使用CSting类型。

The standard library includes type aliases and function definitions for the C standard library in the libc module, and Rust links against libc and libm by default.

The "nullable pointer optimization" 空指针的优化

Certain types are defined to not be null. This includes references (&T,&mut T), boxes (Box<T>), and function pointers (extern "abi" fn()).When interfacing with C, pointers that might be null are often used.As a special case, a generic enum that contains exactly two variants, one of which contains no data and the other containing a single field, is eligible for the "nullable pointer optimization". When such an enum is instantiated with one of the non-nullable types, it is represented as a single pointer, and the non-data variant is represented as the null pointer. So Option<extern "C" fn(c_int) -> c_int> is how one represents a nullable function pointer using the C ABI.

某些类型被定义为非null。这包括地址引用(&T,&mut T),boxes(Box<T>),和函数指针(extern "abi" fn())。当使用C接口时,可能为空的指针式常常被使用的。作为一种特殊情况,一个通用的包括确定的两个变量体的enum,一个没有包含任何数据,另一个包含一个单独的字段,很可能就是一个“空指针优化”。当这样的枚举类型使用一个非空类型数据实例化之后,它被认为是一个单一指针,空数据变量被认为是一个空指针。所以 Option<extern "C" fn(c_int) -> c_int>就是如何认定一个使用C ABI的空函数指针。

Calling Rust code from C

You may wish to compile Rust code in a way so that it can be called from C. This is fairly easy, but requires a few things:

你可能希望用另一种方式编译Rust代码,那样,他就能够被C语言调用掉。这个是相当容易的,但是需要几个前提:

#[no_mangle]
pub extern fn hello_rust() -> *const u8 {
    "Hello, world!\0".as_ptr()
}
# fn main() {}

The extern makes this function adhere to the C calling convention, as discussed above in "Foreign Calling Conventions". The no_mangle attribute turns off Rust's name mangling, so that it is easier to link to.

extern使得这个函数如上面讨论的外部调用约定附加在C调用约定上。no_mangle属性关闭了Rust语言的名称重编,所以它可以很容易的被连接到。

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